Haghighi and Lynch (2012) Entrepreneurship and the social integration of new minorities: Iranian hospitality entrepreneurs in Scotland
This study by Haghighi and Lynch (2012) explores the relationship between Iranian entrepreneurship and integration within Scotland’s hospitality and tourism sector, to examine whether it aids their integration process or acts as a barrier. Haghighi and Lynch (2012) find that paradoxically, minority entrepreneurship within the hospitality sector on the one hand promotes economic integration through capital, but on the other hand hinders their social and cultural integration and therefore can be either a facilitator or a barrier to integration for minorities. The authors contend subsequently that integration should be considered as a continuum as opposed to being viewed as being attained through reaching a prescribed point, with integration resting between the opposing points of isolation and assimilation – evidenced by those who participated in the study as having identified themselves as being located at neither opposing point. As such, the study suggests that ultimately complete integration is impossible for those who participated due to high levels of cultural differences between original and host cultures.
Haghighi, A. M. and Lynch, P. (2012) Entrepreneurship and the social integration of new minorities: Iranian hospitality entrepreneurs in Scotland. Tourism Review, Vol.67(1), pp.4-10.